Historically, power distribution has been dominated by Alternating-Current (AC) which significantly influenced the design of connected energy-consuming appliances. With the emergence of electronics and digital controls as standard design elements in almost all appliance categories, the need for Direct-Current (DC) has emerged, even as it opposes traditional distribution practices. This issue is typically resolved at the appliance level with AC-to-DC converters.
Lighting projects that involve updating CFL lighting systems should consider all viable retrofit options. When retrofitting between CFL four-pin lamps and LED solutions, it is important to observe safety precautions and consider performance variables.
Advanced lighting control systems provide networked control and monitoring capabilities of connected luminaires via onboard metering and system reporting features. These advanced features allow system owners to dynamically balance visual comfort and lighting energy use. CLTC, in collaboration with SDG&E, developed a technology validation program to determine the accuracy and reliability of onboard metering and system reporting features of advanced lighting control systems.
Current Title 24 Building code requirements call for use of high-efficacy lighting in a limited number of residential space types. Builders are allowed to install low efficacy lighting if they also install dimming controls. However, significant load reduction and energy savings over current code-compliant designs can be achieved through the use of All High-Efficacy (AHE) lighting design practices.
Linear fluorescent lamps account for 83 percent of installed lamps in the California commercial sector per a lighting market characterization performed in 2014. LED lighting products are receiving attention for their potential to replace fluorescent lighting, reduce energy use and improve lighting quality in a variety of indoor commercial applications, including offices, classrooms and retail stores. LED alternatives to linear fluorescent lighting products fall into three main categories: linear retrofit lamp solutions, linear retrofits for troffers and dedicated luminaires.
As light emitting diode (LED) MR16 lamps become more prevalent in the commercial market, both residential and commercial end‐users are considering these lamps as replacements for currently installed halogen incandescent MR16 sources. While the energy savings associated with LED lamp replacements is evident, the compatibility of LED MR16 lamps with existing electrical hardware is not. In one‐to‐one lamp retrofits, MR16 LED lamps often demonstrate negative performance characteristics such as visible flicker and audible humming.
The retail sector, which represents 13 percent of California’s lighting electricity use, has historically not embraced the use of lighting controls to save energy. California regulators have responded to retailer’s concerns that lighting controls and lighting power density restrictions may have a negative impact on sales and customers. Currently, building lighting energy-efficiency standards for the retail sector are less stringent than regulations imposed on other commercial space types.
Exterior lighting for streets, roadways, parking lots, and other outside sites represents nearly 10% of the electricity consumed on military bases. Lighting in these areas typically consists of high pressure sodium or sometimes metal halide lamps that are normally controlled by photo-sensors located centrally or sometimes on each fixture. This limited functionality includes turning the lights on in the evening and off in the morning regardless of occupancy levels, thereby consuming more electricity than necessary.
The CASE-Q DP Program Manual contains the requirements and processes for future field demonstrations. It can be used by any team wishing to conduct a sound, thorough and well-documented technology demonstration. In addition to providing this resource, the CASE-Q DP directly supports identification, selection, installation and performance assessments of energy-efficient building technologies ready for current or near-term inclusion in California's Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) initiatives.